The print version of The Backyard Play Revolution does not include links to research and resources cited throughout the text that appear as hyperlinks in the digital version. These links are listed below:
“But then came Mattel and the Thunder Burp, which, according to Howard Chudacoff, a cultural historian at Brown University, was a kind of historical watershed. Almost overnight, children’s play became focused, as never before, on things—the toys themselves” (The Evolution of Play, NPR, 2008).
“Children’s free play and discretionary time declined more than seven hours a week from 1981 to 1997 and an additional two hours from 1997 to 2003, totaling nine hours less a week of time over a 25-year period in which children can choose to participate in unstructured activities” (Childhood Development and Access to Nature, Hofferth and Sandberg, 2001; Hofferth and Curtin, 2006).
In the 1970s, five percent of U.S. children age 2 to 19 were obese. By 2008, that number had increased to nearly 17 percent (Child Obesity, Harvard).
Childhood obesity is called “one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century” by the World Health Organization.
…more children are diagnosed and treated for ADHD now than ever before (ADHD Throughout the Years, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
“According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, two-thirds of infants and toddlers watch a screen an average of two hours a day; kids under age six watch an average of about two hours of screen media a day, primarily TV and videos or DVDs;kids and teens eight to 18 years spend nearly four hours a day in front of a TV screen and almost twoadditional hours on the computer (outside of school work) and playing video games. This interferes with physical activity, time outdoors, and social interactions” (The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation).
…in the USA, the area where children are allowed to roam independently without adult supervision has declined by 90% since the 1970s (Urban Children’s Access to Their Neighborhood: Changes Over Three Generations, Sanford Gaster).
The Atlantic’s The Overprotected Kid by Hanna Rosin
Playwork (on Wikipedia)